NEURAL REGULATION OF RESPIRATION

PRIMARY FUNCTION OF RESPIRATION: SUPPLY SUFFICIENT OXYGEN & REMOVE CARBON DIOXIDE To sustain life, breathing must be cyclic, continuous and achieved by rhythmic contraction and relaxation of respiratory muscles by SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM controlled by NEURAL & CHEMICAL factors. BASIC PLAN Some systems like HEART can function without NERVOUS SYSTEM , RESPIRATORY SYSTEM can notContinue reading “NEURAL REGULATION OF RESPIRATION”

RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE

Also called pulmonary membrane or alveolocapillary membrane. Its the tissues that separate the capillary blood from alveolar air. Exchange of gases takes place through this membrane and hence it plays a very important role in the respiratory process. STRUCTURE –> Consists of 8 layers CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE –> Thickness (0.6 micrometre) & SurfaceContinue reading “RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE”

THALAMUS

Thalamus in Greek means “Ante chamber” or “Inner chamber“. It was discovered way back in the 2nd Century AD, when Galen traced the optic-nerve fibers to an oval mass closely associated with the ventricles. It is considered as head ganglion of all sensory systems.It integrates & processes all sensory impulses. All sensory pathways (EXCEPTION – OlfactoryContinue reading “THALAMUS”

HYPOTHALAMUS

A diencephalic (bilateral) structure. It represents less than 1 % of the brain mass. Small in size but has two way communicating system with all levels of limbic system. Subdivision & nuclei of Hypothalamus CONNECTIONS Hypothalamus is connected to several areas of brain to serve several functions autonomic , visceral etc. Apart from neural connectionContinue reading “HYPOTHALAMUS”

LIMBIC SYSTEM

LIMBIC –> Border/ Girdle. derived from limbus meaning RING. Previously called Rhinencephalon due to its relation to olfaction. Apart from Olfaction, it plays important roles in behaviour, emotion,motivational drives, memory as well as regulation of visceral functions –> Hence referred as –> VISCERAL BRAIN Limbic system is not a separate structure. It refers to aContinue reading “LIMBIC SYSTEM”

Welcome to MBBS Memory Maps in Physiology

Let’s create road-maps for concepts. WISDOM IS NOT A PRODUCT OF SCHOOLING BUT OF THE LIFELONG ATTEMPT TO ACQUIRE IT. –Albert Einstein Hey there! Let’s just say that studying can be fun too. Preparing concept map has been my thing always. So, now I am here to share my view and maps on physiology/medical topicsContinue reading “Welcome to MBBS Memory Maps in Physiology”

DESCENDING MOTOR PATHWAYS / DESCENDING TRACTS

Connect the neurons in, cerebral cortex , Midbrain, Pons, Medulla & Cerebellum with motor neurons (LMN) at various levels. Axons of UMN synapse on spinal : Alpha motor neuron,gamma motor neuron, Spinal interneuron, Sensory afferents TRADITIONALLY TRACTS ARE CLASSIFIED AS: RECENT CLASSIFICATION : Hans Kupyres – 1981,85. CORTICOSPINAL TRACT / PYRAMIDAL TRACT Most important andContinue reading “DESCENDING MOTOR PATHWAYS / DESCENDING TRACTS”

MOTOR CORTEX

PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX Largest of all motor areas Lies in the precentral Gyrus –> Area 4 of Brodmann extending from medial surface to lateral sulcus. low electrical –> Specific & repeatable movement. HOMONCULUS (little man) –> Drawn by Penfield & Rasmussen 1950. Body is upside down legs most medially pharynx lateral most. SIZE OF REPRESENTATIONContinue reading “MOTOR CORTEX”